Thrombosis ,DVT & Pulmonary Embolism

Thrombosis

ThrombosisA clot within a blood vessel is called a thrombus and the process by which it forms is known as thrombosis. It can be damaging as it might block the flow of blood.  Also part of the clot might break away and block a blood vessel further along cutting off the blood supply to important organs.Thrombo means "clot." Phlebitis is inflammation of a vein.  

Thrombophlebitis (throm-bo-fluh-BI-tis) occurs when a blood clot and inflammation develops in one or more of your veins, typically in your legs. On rare occasions, thrombophlebitis (often shortened to phlebitis) can affect veins in your arms. 

The affected vein may be near the surface of your skin (superficial thrombophlebitis) or deep within a muscle (deep vein thrombosis).

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot in one of the deep veins within the body, such as in the leg or pelvis. This kind of thrombosis can occur after surgery and may cause redness, pain and swelling.
  Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Deep vein thrombosis commonly affects the leg veins (such as the femoral vein or the popliteal vein) or the deep veins of the pelvis. Occasionally the veins of the arm are affected.

the leg veins the leg veins

Your risk of DVT increases if you:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Are inactive for a long period of time, such as sitting in a car or an airplane (economy class syndrome).
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Are confined to bed for a prolonged time, such as after surgery, a heart attack or a leg fracture.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Have certain types of cancer, such as pancreatic cancer, which may result in an increase in your blood of procoagulants, substances necessary for blood clotting (coagulation).
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Have had a stroke resulting in paralysis of your arms or legs.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Are pregnant or have just given birth, which may mean you have increased pressure in the veins of your pelvis and legs.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Use oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, which may increase the clotting factors in your blood.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Have a family history of a tendency of blood clots.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Have varicose veins. Clots may develop in dilated superficial veins (varicose veins), causing superficial thrombophlebitis.

Treatment of DVT:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Medical treatment with anticoagulants to dissolve the clots.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Treatment started with intra venous anticoagulants in the hospital and continued with oral anticoagulants for six to eight months there after.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
If patient comes within six hours of a massive DVT the clot can be surgically removed from the vein.

Diagnosis:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Genetic and acquired risk factors.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Assess risk factors of age, type of surgery, past medical history and additional risk factors like :

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Obesity.
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Varicose veins.
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Estrogen use.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Malignancy.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Immobilization.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Paralysis.  

Symptoms:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Pain.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Warmth.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Redness.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Swelling of the lower extremity.

Signs:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Tenderness.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Warmth.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Erythema.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Cyanosis.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Edema.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Palpable cord (a palpable thrombotic vein).
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Superficial venous dilation.

Treatment recommended using low molecular weight heparin:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Haemorrhage less likely (40% decreased major bleeding).
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
No need to monitor activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT).
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
SC administration.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Lower incidence of heparin induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
(1/3rd decreased rate of thrombocytopenia).
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
30% decreased mortality.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Early discharge or outpatient treatment.

Pulmonary Embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious condition in which the arteries leading from the heart to the lungs becomes blocked. It can occur when a blood clot breaks away from its original location and travels to the lungs. Symptoms may include sharp chest pain, shortness of breath and coughing up blood.










 

 


The process by which blood clots occur and travel through the veins is known as venous thromboembolism (VTE), the collective term for DVT and PE.

 
The most serious complication of a DVT is that the clot could dislodge and travel to the lungs blocking blood flow to lung tissue which is called a pulmonary embolism (PE). 
pulmonary embolism
pulmonary embolism
pulmonary embolism
pulmonary embolism
A case of acute pulmonary embolism operated as a life saving measure by Dr. Anand Somaya.

pulmonary embolism
pulmonary embolism
Cardiopulmonary bypass
First glimpse of the thrombus
pulmonary embolism
And it kept coming
The Culprit - Worlds' Longest Anti Mortem Embolus

Symptoms:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Unexplained shortness of breath.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Pain with deep breathing.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Coughing up blood.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Rapid breathing and a fast heart rate. 
 

Diagnosis:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Lung scan.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Venography.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Venous ultrasound.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
HRCT.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Pulmonary Angiography.
 

Treatment recommended by me:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Surgical removal in acute massive pulmonary embolism causing threat to life.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Heparin - Pro Thrombin Time (PTT) adjusted iv Infusion.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Streptokinase/ Urokinase.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Low molecular weight heparin.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Insertion of caval filter.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Oral anticoagulants for 3-6 months.
 

Prevention of DVT and PE During long trips, it may help to:

Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Walk up and down the aisles of the bus, train, or airplane. If travelling by car, stop about every hour and walk around.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Move your legs and flex and stretch your feet to encourage blood flow in your calves.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Wear loose and comfortable clothing.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Drink plenty of fluids and avoid alcohol and coffee.
   
Your risk of DVT increases if you:
Wear anti thrombotic stockings.

* source thewhiteleyclinic.co.uk